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Pachycephalosauria (Pachycephalosaurs)
Translation: Dome-Headed Lizards
Pachycephalosauria (pak-ee-sef-uh-lo-SAW-ree-ah) is an infraorder of the Marginocephalia branch of ornithischias. Members are marked by very thick skulls with various bony ornamentations. (In Pachycephalosaurus, its dome-shaped head was composed of bone up to ten inches thick.) The domes may have been used for ramming their attackers, but it is just as likely that they were used in the same way modern deer and antelope use their horns -- in mating rituals or to settle territorial disputes. Bipedal, they had small, short teeth, grew up to 15 feet (4.6 meters) long, and lived during Late Cretaceous. Pachycephalosaurus

Pachycephalosauridae (Pachycephalosurids)
Translation: Dome-Headed Lizards
Pachycephalosauridae (pak-ee-sef-uh-lo-SAW-ree-day) is a family of the ornithischian infraorder Pachcephalosauria. The small to medium-sized members are marked by helmet-like, dome-shaped heads. Bipedal, they had short sharp teeth, grew up to 8 feet (2.4 meters) long, and lived during Late Cretaceous. Tylocephale

A paleontologist (pay-lee-on-TOL-o-jist) is a scientist who studies ancient life through the fossil record. According to Michael Brett-Surman, of the Smithsonian Institution, "Being a paleontologist is like being a coroner, except all the witnesses are dead, and all the evidence has been left out in the rain for at least 65 million years."

Paleontology (pay-lee-on-TOL-o-jee) is the study of ancient life through the fossil record.

Translation: Ancient Life
Paleozoic (pay-lee-o-ZO-ik) is the era before the Mesozoic Era. This era began 600 million years ago and ended 245 million years ago. During the Paleozoic, fish and sea plants developed.

Pangea (pan-GEE-uh)
During the Permian and Triassic Periods, Pangea (pan-GEE-uh) was a supercontinent that accounted for most of Earth's land mass. During Late Triassic Period, Pangea split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland.The term "Pangaea" (All Earth) is derived from the Greek "pan" meaning all and "gaia" meaning Earth.

Parenting Characteristics
Unlike many modern reptiles, dinosaurs appear to have cared for their young. A trackway in Texas seems to indicate that sauropods surrounded their young when traveling. Nests of Maiasaurs found in Montana provide evidence that their young were cared for until they were fairly large: fossil skeletons of young dinosaurs found in nests show worn teeth, which suggests that they were fed by adults after they had hatched and while they were still living in the nest.

Permian Period
The Permian (PUR-mee-en) Period is the final period in the Paleozoic Era, beginning 290 million years ago and ending 245 million years ago. The next period is the Triassic Period in the Mesozoic Era.

Plateosauridae (Plateosaurids)
Translation: Flat Lizards
Plateosauridae (play-tee-uh-SAWR-ih-day) is a family of prosauropods marked by short hands and fingers that spread outward. The plateosaurids were bipedal herbivores. They lived during the Late Triassic Period. The largest plateosaurid was recorded to be 27 feet (8.2 meters) long. Lufengosaurus and Plateosaurus.

Podokesauridae (Podokesaurids)
Translation: Swift-footed Lizards
Podokesauridae (po-doe-kee-SAWR-ih-day) is a family of ceratosaurs that grew to 10 feet (3 meters) long and lived during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Periods. This family of dinosaurs is marked by comparatively short necks, five-fingered hands and long, slender hind legs.

Procompsognathidae (Procompsognathids)
Translation: Before Elegant Jaws
Procompsognathidae (pro-komp-so-NAY-thih-day) is the most primitive of the coelurosaur families. They were bipedal carnivores with long necks and tails and four-fingered hands. Procompsognathids lived during the Late Triassic Period. Lukousaurus and Procompsognathus

Prosauropoda (Prosauropods)
Translation: Before Sauropods
Prosauropoda (pro-saw-uh POH-dah) is one of two branches of Sauropodomorpha. As the name indicates, prosauropods were primitive progenitors of sauropods. Prosauropods were herbivorous, bipedal, semi-bipedal, or quadrupedal dinosaurs, with thick, five-toed hind limbs and five-fingered forefeet. Prosauropods bore a large thumb-claw on their first toe. Their size ranged from small to very large, and they bore small heads atop long necks.

Protoceratopsidae (Protoceratopsians)
Translation: First Horned Faces
Protoceratopsidae (pro-toe-sair-uh-TOPS-ih-day) is a family of Neoceratopsia. Like later ceratopsians, members had parrot-like beaks and well-developed frills, but small or non-existent horns. Quadrupedal herbivores, protoceratopsians grew up to 7 feet (2.1 meters) long. This family of dinosaurs lived during the Late Cretaceous Period. Microceratops, Montanoceratops, and Protoceratops.

Psittacosauridae (Psittacosaurs)
Translation: Parrot Lizard
Psittacosauridae (sit-uh-ko-SAWR-ih-day) is a family of ceratopsians. Bipedal plant eaters, they had large heads, and beaks for a snout. Psittacosaurids grew up to 6 feet (1.8 meters) long and lived during the Cretaceous Period. Psittacosaurus.

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