Web Site


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  V  >> Glossary Index 


 An audio file is available.
 View printable page version.
Translation: Recent Jaw
Caenagnathidae (SEE-nig-nay-thi-day) is a one-member family of theropods. The classification was created because Caenagnathus has unique characteristics that do not allow it to be classified with other families. Its exact location within the thepods has not yet been determined.

Camarasauridae (Camarasaurids)
Translation: Chambered Lizards
Camarasauridae (kam-uh-ruh-SAWR-ih-day) is one of six families of sauropods. They are distinguished by their nostrils placed in front of their eyes; teeth which run along the jaw extremities; front and hind legs of equal or nearly equal length; and a horizontal back.

Translation: Chambered Lizards
Camarasaurinae (kam-uh-ruh-SAWR-ih-nay) is a subfamily of Camarasauridae, members of which had large skulls and short snouts. Their necks and tails were not as long as those of other sauropods. These quadrupedal herbivores could grow up to 60 feet (18 meters) long. In North America and Europe they existed from the Middle Jurassic Period to the Early Cretaceous Period. See also Camarasaurs.

Translation: Chambered Lizards
Camarasaurs (KAM-uh-rah-sawrz) is the name applied to members of of Camarasauridae or Camarasaurinae.

Translation: Bent Lizards
Camptosauridae (kamp-tuh-SAWR-ih-day) is a family of iguanodont ornithopods. Members had short front legs with five-fingered hands and feet with four toes. These herbivores were bipedal, but grazed on all fours. Both fingers and toes were tipped with hooves instead of nails. The ends of their snouts were beak-like. In North America and England, they lived from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Periods. They could approach the length of 17 feet (5.2 meters). Callovosaurus and Camptosaurus.

Translation: Bent Lizards
Camptosaurs (KAMP-tuh-sawrz) is a name used for the camptosaurids.

Translation: Meat-Eater
A carnivore (KAR-nih-vor) is any animal that eats meat and little of anything else. The teeth of carnivores are typically large and sharp and are mounted in powerful jaws. In a balanced ecosystem, carnivores are outnumbered by herbivores. See also Herbivore and Omnivore. See also Coelurosaurs and Carnosaurs.

Carnivorous (kar-NIV-or-us) See Carnivore.

Carnosauria (Carnosaurs)
Translation: Meat-Eating Lizards
Carnosauria (kar-nuh-SAWR-ee-ah) is the micro-order of the suborder Tetanurae, an infraorder of Theropoda. Carnosaurs had enormous heads, short necks, powerful muscles and heavy bones. Armed with stout tails, vicious claws, and serrated teeth, they attacked and killed prey swiftly. The family Tyrannosauridae, which included Tyrannosaurus rex, is the best-known and most highly developed family of carnosaurs. Carnosaurs lived on the Earth on every continent from the Late Triassic to the Late Cretaceous Periods. Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus.

The Cenozoic Era (sen-uh-ZO-ik) is the Age of Mammals. It directly follows the Mesozoic Era, beginning 66 million years ago and continuing to the present.

Ceratopsia (Ceratopsians)
Translation: Horned Faces
The dinosaurs in the Ceratopsia (sair-uh-TOP-see-ah) infraorder of the Marginocephalia suborder were quadrupedal herbivores and had horns on their heads. They had no teeth; instead, their jaws were parrot-like beaks. Many ceratopsians resembled the modern rhinoceros. Besides the fact that ceratopsians were dinosaurs and rhinos are mammals, the two obviously differ at their necks. Ceratopsians had a huge frill at their necks that possibly served as a shield. They ranged in size from less than a hundred to a few thousand kilograms. 1 kg = 2.2 lbs

Ceratopsidae (Ceratopsids)
Translation: Horned Faces
Ceratopsidae (sair-uh-TOP-see-day) is a family of the Neoceratopsian dinosaurs. These quadrupedal herbivores had horns on their brows and/or snouts. Their necks were covered with frills. A dinosaur in the Ceratopsidae family could grow as long as 25 feet (7.6 meters). During Late Cretaceous Period, two types of ceratopsids lived on the North American continent. One type had a short frill, nose-horns, and short brow horns. The other had a long frill over its neck, short nose-horns, and long brow horns. Brachyceratops, Eucentrosaurus, Monoclonius, Pachyrhinosaurus, and Styracosaurus, Anchiceratops, Arrhinoceratops, Chasmosaurus, Pentaceratops, and Torosaurus.

Translation: Horned Lizards
One of three infraorders of the suborder theropoda, Ceratosauria (sair-AT-toh-SAWR-ee-ah) were small to large-sized carnivorious dinosaurs some with cranial horns or crests.

Ceratosauridae (Ceratosaurids)
Translation: Horned Lizards
The Ceratosauridae (sair-AT-toh-SAW-ri-day) is a family of medium-to-large-sized theropods belonging to the Ceratosauria infraorder. Members are characterized by their large heads (with thin nasal horns), short necks, and short forelimbs bearing a four-fingered hand. Some have cranial horns and bony plates.

Cetiosauridae (Cetiosaurids)
Translation: Whale Lizards
The Cetiosauridae (seet-ee-oh-SAWR-ih-day) is a primitive family of medium-to large-sized sauropods, with box-shaped heads and front and hind legs of equal length.

Cetiosaurinae (Cetiosaurs)
Translation: Whale Lizards
Cetiosaurinae (seet-ee-oh-SAWR-ih-nay) is a subfamily of Cetiosauridae sauropods whose forelegs and hind legs were of equal length. From the Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Periods they lived in Europe, South America, North America, Africa, and Australia. They acheived lengths as great as 72 feet (22 meters). Amygdalodon, Haplocanthosaurus, and Patagosaurus

Dinosaurs had claws on their feet and hands. The shape and purpose of the claws varied with the dinosaur. Some claws were blunt, as were those of the sauropods; others were razor-sharp, as were the sickle-like toe claws of the dromaeosaurids. The size of dinosaur claws vary with the size of the dinosaur, but in general, those of the carnivores were larger, longer, and often sharper, resembling the talons of modern birds of prey. Carnosaurs' claws were from 5 - 12 inches (12 - 30 cm); dromaeosaurids had toe claws ranging from 5 - 12 inches (12 - 30 cm). However, claws were not always used for defense or predation. For example, the sauropods must have used their claws for digging nests in loose sand.

Coeluridae (Coelurids)
Translation: Hollow Bones
Coeluridae (see-LURE-ih-day) is a family of small, light-boned coelurosaurs, members of which were less than 6 feet (1.8 meters) long. Coelurids were theropods, which means they were bipedal carnivores. From the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Periods, they lived in what are now North America and England. Coelurus, Ornitholestes, and Microvenator.

Coelurosauria (Coelurosaurs)
Translation: Hollow Lizards
Coelurosauria (see-lure-uh-SAWR-ee-ah) is a micro-order of small theropods. (This micro-order is a branch of the infraorder Tetanurae.) These bipedal carnivores are believed to be the ancestors of birds. Their bones were hollow, and they were built like birds. In fact, an Archaeopteryx fossil that did not show impressions of feathers was once mistaken for a Coelurosaur. Compared to their body size, some coelurosaurs had large brains. They might have been intelligent dinosaurs. Coelurosaurs lived throughout the Mesozoic Era and outlasted all other dinosaur groups. These dinosaurs could grow to about 4 feet (1.2 meters) long. Their four-fingered hands and four toes, long flexible necks made them successful carnivores.

The exact coloration of dinosaurs is impossible to know, but by looking at animal species of today, some assumptions can be made. Since dinosaurs are related to modern reptiles and birds, it may be that dinosaurs were colored as they are. For example, some small lizards are vividly colored. Small dinosaurs, like Compsognathus, might have worn bright colors. Birds are well-known for their plumage; it could be that dinosaurs were brilliantly colored, too. Large herbivores of today, such as elephants and rhinos, are dusty gray; perhaps Apatosaurus and Triceratops were as well.

Some dinosaurs had crests, or bony protrusions, on the tops of their heads. The hadrosaurs are the best-known crested dinosaurs. Crests varied widely, with many sizes and shapes, from small bumps to long tubes. Some crests were solid, while others were hollow. There are as many theories about the purpose of these crests as there are crests. The crests may have been a type of breathing apparatus while the dinosaur was submerged under water. Another theory suggests that the crests were resonance chambers for focusing and increasing the sound the dinosaurs produced, or for improving the dinosaurs' sense of smell. Yet another theory says that the crests were nothing more than external sex characteristics indicating males and females.

Cretaceous Period
The Cretaceous (kreh-TAY-shus) Period is the last of the three periods of the Mesozoic Era, the Age of Dinosaurs. It lasted from 135 million years ago to 66 million years ago. As the Cretaceous Period progressed, the giant forests of the Jurassic began to disappear. Toward the middle of the period, a gradual global cooling began, and different vegetation began to develop. Flowering plants (angiosperms) appeared, including beech, fig, and magnolia, and seed ferns became extinct. In the Late Cretaceous, dinosaurs inhabited forests that would have closely resembled those of today. The close of the Cretaceous Period was marked by the extinction of the dinosaurs. Interestingly, the greatest number of dinosaur fossils have been found in deposits from the Late Cretaceous Period.

Crocodilia (Crocodilians)
Translation: Crocodile
Crocodilia (crok-o-DIL-ee-ah) is one of the "super-orders" of Archosauria, as is Dinosauria. Although related to them, crocodilians are not dinosaurs. Alligators and Crocodiles belong to this order. They appeared during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic Periods and were among the survivors of the great extinction 66 million years ago. They appear today much as they did then.

Cycada (Cycad)
Cycada (SYE-ka-da) is an order of plants that flourished during the Mesozoic Era. Similar in appearance to the palm tree, this plant grew during the Triassic throughout the Creataceous periods. Because cycads grew everywhere, it is likely they were a significant food source for dinosaurs.

 Jurassic Art
  Database Home
  Order Software

  © 2005 Arts & Letters Corporation
Translate to:   Chasque aquí para traducir inglés a español. Cliquetez ici pour traduire l'anglais en Français. Klicken Sie hier, um Englisch in Deutschen zu übersetzen. Scattisi qui per tradurre l'inglese in italiano. Estale aqui para traduzir o inglês no português.